Department of Biology

Dr. Todd Eckdahl, Chairperson
eckdahl@missouriwestern.edu
(816) 271-5873
www.missouriwestern.edu/Biology

Biology students study all forms of life at the molecular, organismal, and population levels of complexity. Students work in well-equipped laboratories using current tools and techniques, and in the department’s campus natural area where students study life in its natural environment. Independent research and special problems courses are offered for advanced students.

The biology curriculum consists of core courses taken by all biology majors, followed by biology electives in specific areas. The department curriculum provides excellent preparation for prospective science teachers, graduate students, and research biologists, among others, and for professional programs in medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine.

Earth Science and Physical Science (for the elementary teacher) are also listed in the Biology Department.

Missouri Western's Medical School Admissions Programs

Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences: Early Matriculation Partners Program

Missouri Western students have the opportunity to be selected into the Partners Program with the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences (KCU).  This program is designed for outstanding students interested in Osteopathic Medicine to enter KCU following their junior year.  Following successful completion of the first year of medical school at KCU, appropriate credits will be transferred to MWSU and students will be awarded a Bachelors of Science degree majoring in Biology/Health Science concentration.  Students will be selected in the sophomore year based on the following criteria: 1) ACT score- 28 minimum, 2) Freshman year academic performance (minimum 3.25 GPA/3.50 Science GPA), 3) Community service, 4) Extracurricular activities, 5) Physician shadowing experiences, 6) Knowledge of and dedication to the field of osteopathic medicine.

To be considered, students must make application to the committee no later than the advertised deadline, typically November 1st , of the fall semester of the sophomore year.  Selection of qualified applicants will be made by the Missouri Western Health Professions Advisory Committee following an interview.  Selected students will then complete an online application with KCU and complete the required steps.  Final selection into the Partners Program is made by the KCU Admissions Committee.  Selected students must declare a Biology/Health Science Emphasis major at MWSU and complete the following academic requirements by the end of the junior year:

A minimum of 94 credits, including:

All MWSU general studies courses required for graduation
All MWSU Biology Major Core Requirements
PHY 111College Physics II4
Select a minimum of three of the following courses:
BIO 250Anatomy and Physiology5
BIO 311Animal Physiology4
BIO 390Microbiology4
BIO 410Molecular Cell Biology4
BIO 411Developmental Biology4
BIO 416Vertebrate Biology4
BIO 421Immunology4
BIO 430Molecular Basis of Disease4
BIO 441Virology4

To remain in the Partners Program, students must maintain an overall GPA of 3.25 and a science GPA of 3.5 with all science classes earning a grade of “C” or better.  Failure to maintain these academic standards will result in dismissal from the program.  The MCAT will not be required for admission through this early matriculation Partners Program.  However, selected students must attend a mandatory course conducted at KCU following the junior year and prior to matriculation.  Additional details and application material can be obtained through the MWSU Department of Biology or visit http://kcumb.edu/programs/partner-programs

A.T. Still University’s Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine: Still Scholars Early Acceptance Program

The Still Scholars Early Acceptance Program is designed to provide early admission to outstanding pre-medical students who have as their goal to become Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine at A.T. Still University’s Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine (ATSU-KCOM), without the requirement to complete the MCAT.  This program encourages students to focus on developing strong academic and leadership skills, yet allows them to focus on their undergraduate experience without the additional pressures of preparing for the MCAT. In addition, Still Scholars are awarded an academic scholarship for medical school upon entry to ATSU – KCOM.

Applicant Criteria

  • Minimum grade point average (GPA) of 3.40 cumulative and science
  • Submission of application and official transcripts by specified date. Information and application is located at: https://www.atsu.edu/kcom/admissions/preparing_do_admission/still_scholars/index.htm

Application Process

Students may apply to be a Still Scholar after completing a minimum of two years of undergraduate education, but have no less than two years of full-time coursework left in their curricular requirements prior to graduation. Students must have attended school full-time for a minimum of two years of their undergraduate college experience, and courses that meet the academic pre-requisites must have been taken in a traditional residential setting (not on-line). Applications will be due to the MWSU Health Professions Advisory Committee on April 1 for review. Qualified applicants will be interviewed by the committee and applications of students selected for nomination must be received by ATSU Admissions (from the Pre-Health Advisor) on or before June 1.

Application Criteria

  1. Completed Application with Essays
  2. Three evaluation forms/current letters of recommendation (one from each of the following):
    • Academics: Pre-Health Professions Advisor OR Science Faculty Member
    • Clinical or Work Experience: Health Professional or Employer/Supervisor*
    • Community Involvement: Extra-Curricular Organization Advisor*
      *If a letter cannot be provided, another faculty member's evaluation will be accepted
  3. Overall strong academic record (3.40 or higher cumulative GPA; 3.40 or higher science GPA)
  4. Transcript(s) showing the completion of at least 75% of the following academic coursework to demonstrate successful fulfillment of all academic requirements for ATSU-KCOM’s Still Scholars Program:
    • Biology with Lab: Two completed courses (8 semester hours/12 quarter hours)
    • General Chemistry with Lab: Two completed courses (8 semester hours/12 quarter hours)
    • Organic Chemistry with Lab: Two completed courses (8 semester hours/12 quarter hours)
    • General Physics with Lab: Two completed courses (8 semester hours/12 quarter hours)
    • English: Two completed courses (6 semester hours/8 quarter hours)

Students must have received a grade of “B” or above in the previously listed courses from a U.S., regionally accredited college or university at the time of their Still Scholars application.

Selection Criteria

Applicants will interview in early Fall following their sophomore year. Selected students (maximum of 15) will be awarded reserved admissions to ATSU – KCOM at the beginning of their junior year. The ATSU – KCOM selection committee will rank the top students using the following criteria:

  • Overall academic record
  • Fulfillment of academic requirements with a minimum grade of “B” in each required course
  • Proven commitment to osteopathic medicine based on required essays
  • Community service/Leadership positions held
  • Evaluation forms/Letters of recommendation
  • Successful interview with the KCOM selection committee

Participant Criteria

  • Maintain a minimum GPA of 3.40 cumulative and science
  • Continue to gain clinical experience/exposure (>200 hours total is highly recommended)
  • Continue community service/leadership opportunities
  • Demonstrate commitment to osteopathic medicine
  • Participate in all ATSU – KCOM Still Scholars Events/Activities (on-line and on-campus)
  • Complete ATSU – KCOM pre-requisites and required coursework to earn BA/BS degree
  • Maintain accurate contact information with ATSU Admissions
  • Participate in ATSU – KCOM final pre-matriculation review
  • Complete AACOMAS application by July 1 prior to senior year
  • Complete ATSU – KCOM secondary application by August 1 prior to senior year

All prescribed courses in the baccalaureate program of the applicants’ choice must be taken at Missouri Western State University. Any deviation from the required courses requires written approval from the Pre-Health Advisor and from ATSU Admissions. Participants must matriculate within one year of graduation from Missouri Western State University. A.T. Still University – Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine reserves the right, at any time, to reject a student deemed unsuitable for the program. In addition, acceptance will be withdrawn if application is made to another medical/osteopathic school, if participant criteria are not met, if academic, ethical or moral violation occurs, or if a personal change in career choice is made.  Additional details and information can be obtained through the MWSU Department of Biology or at http://www.atsu.edu/kcom/admissions/preparing_DO_admission/still_scholars/index.htm

University of Missouri - Kansas City, School of Medicine: Medical Scholars Program

The UMKC School of Medicine offers a Medical Scholars program that would offer early and guaranteed admission to Missouri Western State University students interested in applying to medical school. This program would offer early admission into the School of Medicine's M.D. Program for students currently in their sophomore or junior year of college.

Application Timeline

May 1: Medical Scholars Program Application becomes available.
Current college students may apply to the program during the summer between their sophomore and junior year or junior and senior year of college.

September 1: Application deadline.
The School of Medicine Medical Scholars program application is due by this date. All supporting documents must also be postmarked by this date, including college transcripts, personal statement, resume, and letters of recommendation.

Requirements for Consideration

In order to be considered for the Medical Scholars program, a student must meet the following requirements:

  • Obtain a cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher at the end of the sophomore year.
  • Earn a grade of “B” or higher in science coursework.
  • Students must present a full application which will include the following:

Medical Scholars Program Application.
• College transcript displaying grades through the point of application.
• Personal statement or essay addressing the following:

What has motivated you to study medicine? Why are you interested in the UMKC Medical Scholars program?

• Résumé or CV, highlighting specific health care experiences.
• A minimum of three letters of recommendation, including at least one from a faculty member.

Final Requirements for Students Admitted to the Medical Scholars Program

Matriculation to the UMKC School of Medicine is conditional upon meeting the following requirements:

  • Earn a baccalaureate degree prior to entering the School of Medicine in January of the chosen year.
  • Earn a combined MCAT score of 500 or higher.
  • Earn a cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher.
  • Earn a GPA of 3.5 or higher in the following pre-requisite courses:
    • A minimum 19 hours of Chemistry that includes:
      • Two semesters of general chemistry with lab
      • One semester of organic chemistry
      • One semester of biochemistry (an upper level course)
    • A minimum 14 hours of Biology that includes:
      • One semester of general Biology with lab
      • One semester of genetics
      • One semester of cell biology.
    • Students must earn a grade of “B” or better in all pre-requisite coursework.
  • At graduation, provide a letter of support from an academic advisor or faculty member addressing citizenship.
  • Submit to and pass a criminal background check prior to matriculation to the School of Medicine.
  • Submit the School of Medicine Technical Standards sheet.

Instructions for Application

An application will NOT be reviewed until all supporting documents have been received. When all application materials have been received, the Council on Selection in the School of Medicine will review all complete applications. All application materials must be postmarked by September 1.

Students applying for admission to the School of Medicine Medical Scholars Program must submit the following documents to:

UMKC School of Medicine
Office of Admissions/Council on Selection
2411 Holmes Street
M1-103
Kansas City, MO 64108

  • The School of Medicine Medical Scholars Program application
  • Official college transcripts
  • Personal statement
  • Résumé
  • Three letters of recommendation. These should be submitted directly to the School of Medicine by professors, advisors, or others who can speak to your academic ability and personal characteristics.

After the review of all complete applications by the Council on Selection in the School of Medicine, candidates will be selected for interview. If selected for an interview, applicants will be required to be present at the date and time of the interview. All applicants invited to interview must interview in person at the School of Medicine. Phone interviews will not be permitted.  After all applicants invited have been interview, the Council on Selection will extend offers of guaranteed admission to those candidates who best qualify for the Medical Scholars Program. Applicants will be notified in writing of the decision.  Additional details and information can be obtained through the MWSU Department of Biology or at http://www.med.umkc.edu/med_admissions/Med_Scholars_Program.shtml

University of Missouri-Columbia, School of Medicine: Bryant Scholars Program

The University of Missouri-School of Medicine established the Lester R. Bryant Pre-Admissions Program in 1995 to attract students who have both a rural background and an interest in practicing rural medicine for pre-admission to the MU School of Medicine. Students must meet the following criteria to be eligible to apply to the Bryant Scholars Program. 

Applicants must:

  • Be in the process of completing their sophomore (second) year in college
  • Show evidence of high academic achievement during high school
  • Show high academic achievement during the first two years of college. Applicants must have minimum 3.3 cumulative GPA and minimum 3.3 Math/Science GPA
  • Have A or B (B minus is accepted but reviewed on a case by case basis) grades in required lecture/lab courses already taken at the time of application
  • Show evidence of leadership and interest in a variety of extracurricular activities
  • Be a Missouri resident
  • Have graduated from a rural Missouri high school as defined by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
  • Be full-time enrolled at a Missouri public or independent four-year college or university

Applications and supporting materials are due June 1st to MU School of Medicine. Only complete applications with all required application materials will be considered.  It is the responsibility of the applicant to ensure all required materials are received by MU School of Medicine. Applications or supporting materials postmarked after June 1st will not be considered.

Additional details can be obtained through the MWSU Department of Biology or find the most up-to-date information, program requirements, required coursework, application material, and more at http://medicine.missouri.edu/ahec/pre-admissions.html.  Please review this web site carefully.

Admission Requirements

Majors in the department which have admission requirements are listed below. Majors which are not listed on this page do not have specific requirements for admission. Information about the recommended coursework a student might take prior to declaring the major can be obtained from the department.

Natural Science in Biology (Education)

  • ACT composite score on file
  • Successful completion of the Missouri General Education Assessment (MoGEA)
  • Overall GPA of 2.75
  • Education course GPA of 3.0
  • Content area GPA of 3.0
  • Satisfactory completion of EDU 202/203

ACT and MoGEA scores should be received the semester before application for admission to teacher education is made (up to 4 months should be allowed for scores to be processed).

*Alternative avenues to Teacher Education available for recruitment of historically under-served populations.  Contact the Department Chairperson for guidelines and procedures.


Biology (BIO)

BIO 101  Principles of Biology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Introductory course on the principles of living phenomena intended for students not major in biology. Meets General Studies Category 2, Line 1 requirement. Three hours lecture, two hours lab.

BIO 105  Principles of Organismal Biology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Examines basic concepts and principles of evolutionary biology, behavior, ecology, physiology and morphology at the organismal level. Three hours lecture, three hours lab per week. Prerequisite(s): ACT math score of 22 or higher or a score of 70 or higher on the MWSU Math Placement Exam or the equivalent, ACT English score of 18 or higher or the equivalent, and ACT reading score of 18 or higher or the equivalent. LAS Writing.

BIO 106  Principles of Cell Biology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: This introductory biology course examines the structure and function of animal and plant cells, interactions between cells, intra- and intercellular signaling mechanisms and basic cellular biochemistry. Within the above context, students are also introduced to basic concepts of molecular biology and development. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. LAS Writing. Prerequisite(s): ACT math score of 22 or higher or a score of 70 or higher on the MWSU Math Placement Exam or the equivalent, ACT English score of 18 or higher or the equivalent, and ACT reading score of 18 or higher or the equivalent.

BIO 116  Naturalist Training     Credits: 1

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: This course emphasizes the interpretation of major Missouri habitats, plants and animals. The history and philosophy of nature interpretation and its importance to conservation education is covered. The course is designed for students who wish to serve as official volunteers for the Department of Conservation during their college career and beyond. Course grades assigned on a pass/fail basis. Prerequisite(s): BIO 101 or BIO 105 recommended.

BIO 205  Genetics     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Explore and study classical, molecular, and evolutionary genetics. Three hours lecture and three hours lab per week. Prerequisite(s): BIO 106 and CHE 111 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 207  Human Ecology     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall.

Course Description: Environmental Science/Studies course analyzing how human society interacts with the natural world. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in either BIO 101, BIO 105 or BIO 106.

BIO 209  Introduction to Wildlife Conservation     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring.

Course Description: This course surveys the historic and modern development of conservation biology. How the principles of conservation are applied to the management, restoration, and preservation of wildlife natural resources is emphasized. Prerequisite(s): BIO 105 with a grade of C or higher. BIO 225 recommended.

BIO 220  Field Natural History     Credits: 1-3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Involves participation in an off-campus field trip to experience a focused study of a unique biotic habitat. May involve pre-trip lectures and organizational meetings and/or post-trip class sessions or presentations. Different BIO 220 courses may be repeated for credit. Prerequisite(s): BIO 101, BIO 105, or BIO 106 or departmental approval.

BIO 225  Ecology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Covers principles of ecology and evolution, including field and research methods. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. LAS Computer Literacy. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 105.

BIO 250  Anatomy and Physiology     Credits: 5

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.

Course Description: Concepts of human structure and function and relationships of these concepts to cells, tissues, organs and systems. Four hours lecture, two hours lab. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in either BIO 101 or BIO 106.

BIO 251  Medical and Public Health Microbiology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Medically significant microorganisms, their characteristics, relationship to disease, transmission, and control methods. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 101 or BIO 106 and CHE 101, CHE 104 or CHE 111 each with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 283  Introduction to Research Methods in Biology     Credits: 1-5

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Introduction to basic research in biology. Individual and team projects involving methods for solving biology-related research problems. Prerequisite(s): Departmental approval.

BIO 308  History and Philosophy of the Natural Sciences     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring.

Course Description: A study of the history of the natural sciences with an emphasis on the philosophical analysis of these events. Prerequisite(s): Completion of General Studies Mathematics and Natural Sciences requirements.

BIO 311  Animal Physiology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall.

Course Description: The physiological systems, their functions and interactions in animal physiology with emphasis on the human animal. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 205 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 314  Technology and Society     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Participatory course emphasizing a particular problem and/or issue related to technology and society. Class participants will investigate the semester's theme using currently available technologies. Same as ENG 314, HUM 314, PSY 314, and PSC 314. Prerequisite(s): Category One - Basic Skills courses.

BIO 318  Ornithology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring.

Course Description: Biology of birds covering avian taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, evolution, and both sight and sound identification. Prerequisite(s): BIO 225 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 320  Histology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Identification and description of microscopic structure, organization of tissues and organs, preparation of tissues for observation and study. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 106.

BIO 325  Introduction to Paleontology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: This class reviews the history of life on Earth, and the principles of quantitative and qualitative techniques used in paleontology. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 101 or BIO 105 or ESC 111 with a grade of C or higher, or consent of the instructor.

BIO 331  Bioinformatics     Credits: 2

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Bioinformatics is both the acquisition and the analysis of molecular genetic information. This course will concentrate on the growing repertoire of software available for bioinformatics studies and will give students an opportunity to design, complete, and present independent bioinformatics projects that address biological questions. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 205.

BIO 340  Plant Physiology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall.

Course Description: This course examines plant functions and emphasizes aspects of plant growth and development, water relations and mineral nutrition, plant primary and secondary metabolism, plant-plant and plant-environment interactions as well as plant stress biology. Laboratory exercises will introduce students to modern investigative bench- and field based techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 106 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 350  Plant Systematics     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Origin and diversification of non-vascular and vascular plants. This course will discuss taxonomy, evolution, identification, and phylogenetics of plant taxa. Three hours lecture, two hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 205 and BIO 225 both with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 351  Local Flora     Credits: 2

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: This course concentrates on the identification, ecology, and natural history of native plants in forests, prairies, wetlands, and successional habitats in northwest Missouri. A plant collection and field trips are required. Prerequisite(s): BIO 225 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 352  Lichenology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Taxonomy, morphology, systematics, and ecology of lichenized-fungi with laboratory emphasis on identification of local taxa using micro- and macro-morphological characters, thin layer chromatography, and ascospore microscopy. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 225 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 353  Philosophy of Biology     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: An introduction to current issues in the philosophy of biology such as the nature of biological organization, classification, and living systems and some of the problems that have arisen in the attempt to understand these complex systems. Same as PHL 353. Prerequisite(s): BIO 101 or BIO 105 or BIO 106.

BIO 355  Cave Ecology     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: The ecology of cave habitats. Includes information on biotic and abiotic factors affecting cave organisms, cave microhabitats, trophic interactions, and evolutionary adaptations. Field activities will emphasize mini projects that relate to cave ecology. Two hours lecture and the equivalent of three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 105 and BIO 225 both with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 357  Ichythology     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: The study of fishes, including morphology, physiology, taxonomy, phylogeny, evolution, ecology and behavior. Labs will cover field and laboratory techniques for studying fishes, including identification of families and species with an emphasis on the fishes of Missouri. One weekend field trip is required. This class will consist of one hour lecture and a two hour lab. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 106 and BIO 225.

BIO 360  Development of Federal Wildlife Law     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Introduction to the principles of federal wildlife law as currently practiced in the United States. The course will survey the historical and constitutional origins of federal wildlife law and discuss the influence major statutes currently in effect exert on the biopolitics and daily practice of wildlife resource management and conservation. Three hours lecture, including discussions and/or special topics. Field trips may occasionally substitute for lecture/discussion periods at instructor's discretion, depending upon the topic.

BIO 375  Pathophysiology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: The etiology, pathogenesis, and manifestations of human diseases, with an emphasis on underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 250 or BIO 311.

BIO 380  Biology Teaching: Materials and Methods     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: This course provides pre-service secondary biology teachers with opportunities to develop a framework that can be used to coordinate biological concepts and techniques obtained from science courses with pedagogical concepts and methods from education classes and teaching experiences. The development of a science teaching portfolio is required. Students enrolled in this course must also be available to work in one of the scheduled BIO 101 labs. Prerequisite(s): 20 credit hours in science.

BIO 385  Herpetology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Natural history of the amphibians and reptiles, including ecology, biology, evolution, and anatomy, with an emphasis on local species. Three hours lecture and one, three-hour lab each week. One weekend field trip is required. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 106 and BIO 225.

BIO 390  Microbiology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall.

Course Description: Identification, characteristics, and importance of microorganisms; application to human needs, infection and immunity. Three hours lecture and three hours lab per week. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 205.

BIO 407  Plant Morphology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: This course discusses the morphological and anatomical features of plants within the context of their development, evolution, and diversity. Emphasis is also placed on surveying mechanisms affecting morphological and anatomical diversification. Laboratory and field investigations focus on modern techniques used in comparative plant morphology-, anatomy- and development investigations. Three hours lecture, two hours lab. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 105.

BIO 409  Principles of Terrestrial Wildlife Management     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Students will survey the principles, theories, and practices of terrestrial wildlife management. Activities include discussions of local, national, and international issues as well as exploration of major techniques used in the management of terrestrial wildlife resources. Lectures, field experiences, discussions, and in-class activities are integrated throughout the course. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in both BIO 209 and BIO 225.

BIO 410  Molecular Cell Biology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring.

Course Description: Advanced cell biology covering topics relevant to cellular structure and function. Selected topics may include: cell signaling, cell adhesion, membrane function, cell motility and cytoskeletal structure and function. The cellular basis for some human syndromes and disease will also be covered. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 205 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 411  Developmental Biology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall.

Course Description: Examines the morphological changes and the genetic and molecular pathways involved in animal embryonic development. Three hours lecture and three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 205 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 412  Seminar in Biology     Credits: 1

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Individual reports and group discussion on problems and current research in biology. May be repeated for a maximum of 2 credits. Prerequisite(s): Departmental approval.

BIO 415  Invertebrate Biology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Biology of the invertebrates, emphasizing their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, evolution, and ecology. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 106 and BIO 225 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 416  Vertebrate Biology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Comparative anatomy and physiology, evolution, and systematics of the vertebrates. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 205 and BIO 225 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 417  Medical Parasitology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring.

Course Description: An introduction to the major protozoal, helminth, and arthropod parasites of humans. Three hours lecture, two hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 205 and BIO 225 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 418  Mammalogy     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: The morphology, systematics, evolution, taxonomy, distribution, comparative physiology, life history, behavior, and ecology of mammals. Research and collections dealing with mammals will also be a part of this course. Three hours lecture and three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 225.

BIO 419  Animal Behavior     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: An introduction to the principles of animal behavior, including the evolutionary, ecological, physiological, and psychological basis of animal behavior. Topics will include social interactions, mating behavior, communication, learning, foraging, predator-prey interactions, and habitat selection. Three hours lecture and three hours lab. Same as PSY 419. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 105, or a grade of C or higher in both BIO 101 and PSY 101.

BIO 420  Biology Teaching Practicum     Credits: 1-2

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.

Course Description: A laboratory or classroom teaching assistant experience. This experience may not be substituted for other courses required in the student's major area. Course grades assigned on a pass/fail basis. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite(s): Overall GPA 2.75 and departmental approval.

BIO 421  Immunology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Investigation of the cellular and molecular basis of the immune response. Methods in immunology as applied to various fields. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 390 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 425  Biology Internship     Credits: 1-2

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.

Course Description: An extracurricular experience related to a unique approved career experience or a Preprofessional experience. Course grades assigned on a pass/fail basis. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite(s): Departmental approval.

BIO 430  Molecular Basis of Disease     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Investigation of the basic biological causes of human diseases at molecular, cellular, and physiological levels. Three hours lecture, three hours lab per week. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 205.

BIO 431  Molecular Biology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: In-depth study of the molecular and cellular basis of life. Investigation of molecular genetic techniques as applied to diverse biological disciplines. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in both BIO 106 and BIO 205.

BIO 441  Virology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Principles of virology that will focus on virus classification, various molecular aspects of virus replication, and pathogenesis. Prerequisite(s): BIO 390 with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 450  Independent Research/Project     Credits: 1-5

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.

Course Description: Investigation of a research problem, project, or topic on an individual conference basis. Prerequisite(s): Departmental approval.

BIO 455  Entomology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Introduction to the insects that will focus on their taxonomy, natural history, physiology, development, and ecology. Three hours lecture, three hours lab. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 105, BIO 106 and BIO 225.

BIO 458  Fisheries Management     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: The science and techniques (field and analytical/quantitative) of managing fisheries resources. Basic principles of recruitment, growth, and mortality will be examined in conjunction with management implications. Each class will consist of 1 hours of lecture and 2 hours of covering the lecture topic in lab. Prerequisite(s): BIO 209 and BIO 225 each with a grade of C or higher.

BIO 461  Renewable Resources Policy and Administration     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: This course explores wildlife resources policy and administration from several perspectives. It examines environmental and administrative decision making in developing and implementing policy designed to address contemporary resource management challenges, conflicts and problems as they impact wildlife resources at the state and national level. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in BIO 105.

BIO 495  Individual Research in Biology     Credits: 1-5

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.

Course Description: Individual research within the various fields of biology. The student will be required to present results of investigation at a public seminar. Course grade assigned on a pass/fail basis. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite(s): Junior or Senior standing, with a declared Biology major, 2.5 GPA; BIO 105, CHE 111, CHE 120, MAT 116.

Earth Science (ESC)

ESC 111  Physical Geology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Survey of geologic materials and processes, including quantitative and qualitative methods for studying geology. Three hours lecture, two hours lab.

ESC 120  Meteorology     Credits: 4

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Studies the nature and phenomena of the atmosphere and surveys climates and their classification. Three hours lecture, two hours lab. Prerequisite(s): ACT math score of 22 or higher or a score of 70 or higher on the MWSU Math Placement Test or the equivalent, ACT English score of 18 or higher or the equivalent, and ACT reading score of 18 or higher or the equivalent.

Physical Science (PHS)

PHS 230  Physical Science for Elementary Teachers     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Basic concepts of the physics, chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, and geology emphasizing topics taught in grades K-6. Prerequisite(s): EDU 202 and EDU 203.

Jason Baker (2000) Professor, Biology. B.S., Ph.D., Kansas State University.

Csengele Barta (2012) Assistant Professor, Biology. B.S., Babes-Bolyai University; M.S., Biological Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Ph.D., University of Szeged.

Cary Chevalier (1996) Professor, Biology. B.S., M.S., Arizona State University; Ph.D., University of California.

Melissa Daggett (2004) Associate Professor, Biology. B.S., Kansas State University; Ph.D., University of Kansas.

Todd Eckdahl (1993) Chairperson and Professor, Biology. B.S., University of Minnesota-Duluth; Ph.D., Purdue University.

Carissa Ganong (2016) Assistant Professor, Biology. B.S., Mansfield University; M.S., University of Central Arkansas; Ph.D., University of Georgia.

Michael Grantham (2016) Assistant Professor, Biology. B.S., Emporia State University; Ph.D., Louisiana State University.

Julie Jedlicka (2015) Assistant Professor, Biology. B.S., M.S., University of Michigan-Ann Arbor; Ph.D., University of California-Santa Cruz.

Karen Koy (2008) Associate Professor, Biology. B.S., Bowling Green State University; M.S., Indiana University; Ph.D., University of Illinois at Chicago.

Mark Mills (2008) Associate Professor, Biology. B.S., M.A., University of Nebraska at Omaha; Ph.D., University of Georgia.

Tilottama Roy (2017) Assistant Professor, Biology. B.S., Presidency College; M.S., University of Calcutta; M.S., University of South Dakota; Ph.D, The State University of New York at Buffalo.

Kristen Walton (2006) Professor, Biology. B.S., Missouri State University; Ph.D., University of North Carolina.