Department of History, Philosophy & Religion

Dr. James M. Okapal, Chairperson        
jokapal@missouriwestern.edu
(816) 271-4155
www.missouriwestern.edu/HG

This department offers courses in the areas of history, philosophy, religion, and humanities.

History is the study of change over time. While people often think of history as the study of warfare and great leaders, everything, every place, and everyone has a history; politics, economics, sexuality, medicine, religion, law, and the natural world are just a few of the major sub-fields of history. The discipline of history prepares students to understand how transformation takes place over time. It is also a scientific discipline that requires critical analysis of different types of data and evidence-based interpretation. The study of history develops skills in contingent thinking and the valuing and synthesis of multiple perspectives, preparing students to better understand the reasons for human and natural diversity and to envision alternate futures. Through course work, internships, and experiential learning opportunities, history majors at Missouri Western develop skills that prepare them for careers in arenas such as finance, law, government, education, public and social service, and in arts and cultural institutions such as museums, libraries, and archives.

The philosophy faculty is committed to cultivating student inquiry into all of the major areas of traditional western philosophical inquiry, including logic, metaphysics, epistemology, and the value areas of ethics and political theory, aesthetics and the philosophy of art, and the philosophy of religion. This commitment is realized primarily through the development of courses that offer students opportunities to examine philosophical issues and debates drawn from both historical and contemporary sources. Courses in philosophy thus promote the development of critical thinking skills and the ability to communicate well-reasoned personal beliefs clearly in both written and oral discourse, both in and outside the classroom. Students who major in philosophy can apply these skills and their experience in career areas such as law, business, and the health professions or to graduate study in fields such as philosophy, theology, and nursing.

Students in religion explore the beliefs and practices of humanity: from the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, to the Chinese traditions of Confucianism and Daoism; from the Samsaric religions of Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism, to the variety of small-scale and indigenous traditions around the world. Building on a core of regional surveys, the religion minor includes courses in Jewish and Christian Biblical studies, Islam, and the philosophy of religion, as well as topical courses that examine relevant themes across a wide selection of world traditions.

Humanities courses focus on the study of core texts typically considered central to the development of the western cultural tradition, while also providing some exposure to works from non-western cultures. These courses offer students opportunities to examine human intellectual and cultural history from the perspective of the studia humanitatis formulated during the Renaissance period of modern western history as well as the "cultural studies" orientation of more recent post-structuralist thinkers. Students minoring in humanities may use the four core courses offered either to enhance their major coursework, if they are majoring in a "humanistic" discipline, or they may combine these courses with those from fields of study commonly identified as humanistic, including history, languages and literature, and philosophy, or those in the visual arts, music, and drama.

Admission Requirements

Majors in the department which have admission requirements are listed below. Majors which are not listed on this page do not have specific requirements for admission. Information about the recommended coursework a student might take prior to declaring the major can be obtained from the department.

History

Students desiring this major should declare their interest to the chairperson of the Department of History, Philosophy & Religion so that they can be assigned History faculty advisors. Applicants must have a minimum GPA of 2.0 to declare this major.

History (Education)

  • ACT composite score on file
  • ACT composite score of 20 or higher or successful completion of the Missouri General Education Assessment (MoGEA)
  • Overall GPA of 2.75
  • Education course GPA of 3.0
  • Content area GPA of 3.0
  • Satisfactory completion of EDU 202/203

ACT and/or MoGEA scores should be received the semester before application for admission to teacher education is made (up to 4 months should be allowed for scores to be processed).

History (HIS)

HIS 120  Modern World History     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: A survey of the political, social, and economic history of the world (Europe, Africa, Middle East, India, Far East, and Latin America) from 1815 to the present.

CORE 42: MOTR HIST 202; World History II

HIS 140  American History to 1865     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: The discovery of America to the end of the Civil War; colonial America, the Revolution, national development, sectionalism, and the Civil War.

CORE 42: MOTR HIST 101; American History I

HIS 150  American History since 1865     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Continuation of HIS 140. Reconstruction, industrialization, urbanization, emergence as a world power, progressivism, World War I, the New Deal, World War II, and postwar America.

CORE 42: MOTR HIST 102; American History II

HIS 200  Ancient and Medieval Civilization     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: The western world from antiquity to the fifteenth century; the emergence of civilization in the Nile and Tigris-Euphrates valleys; the political, social, economic, and intellectual contributions of Greece, Rome, and medieval Europe.

CORE 42: MOTR WCIV 101; Western Civilization I

HIS 210  Early Modern Civilization     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: The western world from 1500 to 1815; national states, the geographical revolution, the founding of European oversee empires, the Reformation, the emergence of constitutional governments, the Scientific Revolution, and the American French Revolutions.

CORE 42: MOTR WCIV 102; Western Civilization II

HIS 220  History of Missouri     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Missouri under French and Spanish rule; the American acquisition; the role of the state in the slavery crisis and in the settlement of the West; the state's contributions to politics, art, literature, education, industry, and transportation.

HIS 230  Modern Europe: 1789 to the Present     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: The French Revolution and Napoleonic periods; reaction, nationalism, and revolution; rise of socialism; imperialism; World War I; the Russian Revolutions and Soviet communism; the rise of fascism; Hitler, Stalin, and World War II; the Holocaust; the postwar bi-polar world order; the bloc system.

CORE 42: MOTR WCIV 102; Western Civilization II

HIS 235  Historic Preservation Field School     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Intensive field experience in documenting and preserving an existing built environment as well as the historic landscape. Students actively participate in a survey of an urban neighborhood. Class sessions consist of lecture, discussion, field work, and lab. Lecture and discussion cover a wide array of issues in historic preservation. Field work includes tours, inspection, photography, and documentation of historic buildings. This course may be taken more than once for credit as an elective, but only once to fulfill a requirement for the major in either the B.A. or B.S. program in History.

HIS 245  History of the Middle East in the Twentieth Century     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: An examination of the historical developments in the Middle East since 1900, with special attention to the origins of current political, social, and economic issues in a region plagued by instability.

HIS 290  The Historian's Craft     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring.

Course Description: This course introduces students to the methods used by historians to analyze, interpret, and write about the past. Students will learn basic skills which may include, but are not limited to: locating and assessing source material; analyzing primary and secondary sources; writing analytical, comparative, historiographical, and review essays; conducting oral interviews; conducting oral presentations; reviewing movies. Various thematic approaches will be offered. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 or HIS 150, and HIS 200 or HIS 210 or HIS 230, and ENG 104, and must be a declared major or minor in history.

HIS 300  American Colonial History     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: The founding of North American colonies by Spain, France, and Great Britain; cross-cultural interactions between Europeans and Native Americans; race and slavery; religious diversity; economic growth; imperial conflicts; British colonial administration and the path to Revolution. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 and HIS 150, and a grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 301  Early National Period     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Transition from colonial settings to constitutional republic; birth of political parties; Jeffersonian republicanism; Native American conflicts; race and slavery; women's expanded opportunities; War of 1812; economic growth and transportation innovations; Jacksonian democracy. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 and HIS 150, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 302  Antebellum America     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Postwar expansion; rise of American nationalism and the growth of the West; revival of the two-party system; Jacksonian democracy; humanitarian crusades; the Mexican War. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 and HIS 150, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 305  The American Frontier     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Westward expansion of the United States over three centuries; colonial frontier, trans-Appalachian frontier, trans-Mississippi frontier; significance of the frontier in American history. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 and HIS 150, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 306  American Women's History     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: This course provides an introduction to the study of women in American history from the colonial era through the 20th century, with particular emphasis on the everyday experiences of ordinary women, including women's work, family life, religious experiences, health, and sexuality. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 and HIS 150, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 308  African American History     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: This course surveys major themes in African American History starting with enslavement through the Long Civil Rights movement of the 20th century. Will focus on how freedom expanded and contracted for African Americans as well as the various strategies of protest and self-expression they used to gain equality and justice. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 and HIS 150, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 310  English History to 1688     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: An examination of major facts and interpretations of the history of England from the Roman era through the Glorious Revolution; emphasis on political events, social institutions, and cultural developments that shaped the ancient, medieval, and early modern English past. Prerequisite(s): HIS 200 and HIS 210, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 311  Race, Science, Medicine Am His     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: This course explores the complex relationship of medicine and science in the construction of race in American history. Will explore the concept of race in early anthropology, monogenism and polygenism, enslavement, eugenics, and the rise of IQ and DNA testing among other topics. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 and HIS 150, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 320  English History since 1688     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: An examination of major facts and interpretations of the history of England from the Glorious Revolution to the present; emphasis on evolution of parliamentary government and the rise and decline of the British Empire. Prerequisite(s): HIS 210 and HIS 230, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 325  American Economic History     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: English mercantilism, laissez-faire and its effect on American economic development, the emergence of the corporation and the trust, the issue of government regulation, and the role of the government in the economy of today. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 and HIS 150, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 330  Recent United States History     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: United States since 1945; wartime mobilization; rise of American hegemony; Cold War anticommunism; Civil rights; suburbanization; gender politics; cultural rebellions; Great Society; Conservative ascendency; Globalization; war on terror, Great Recession. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 and HIS 150, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 334  Selected Topics in Ancient History     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: This course will study the political narrative as well as the intellectual, religious and social history of the cultures that defined the ancient Mediterranean world. Each semester it is offered will focus on one of the following: Ancient Middle East, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, or another ancient topic. In addition to learning the political and social events of these cultures, students will read and discuss a number of primary sources from these civilizations focusing on their indigenous meaning as well as their impact on Western Civilization. May be repeated with departmental approval for a total of 9 credit hours if course content varies significantly. Prerequisite(s): HIS 200 and HIS 290.

HIS 335  Medieval Europe     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: An examination of Medieval European history focusing on the medieval origins of modern European institutions. Students will read several historical monographs in order to understand the narrative of medieval history and to gain a greater knowledge about how modern historians write about the medieval past. Prerequisite(s): HIS 200 and HIS 210, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 336  The Crusades     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: An examination of the origin and history of the wars fought between Christendom and Islam in the Middle Ages. Emphasizes the history of these wars from the perspective of all the cultures involved as well as the influence of the idea of the crusades and crusading on medieval and modern thought. Prerequisite(s): HIS 200 and HIS 210, and a grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 339  Europe 1815-1914     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Europe from the Congress of Vienna to 1914; reaction and revolution, nationalistic movements, rise of socialism-communism, the diplomatic background of World War I. Prerequisite(s): HIS 230 and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 340  Recent European History     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Europe in World War I, the rise of dictatorships, the League of Nations, new alignments, World War II, and the postwar period. Prerequisite(s): HIS 230 and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 342  The Russian Kingdom and Empire 1462-1917     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Restoration of the Russian kingdom by Ivan III "the Great;" establishment of royal absolutism by Ivan IV "the Terrible;" the Time of Troubles; emergence of the Russian empire; invasion by Napoleon; expansion of empire; collapse of the monarchy. Prerequisite(s): HIS 210 and HIS 230, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 345  Military History     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: The historical development and application of military strategy, tactics, doctrine, and technology from ancient times to the present. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 or HIS 150 or HIS 200 or HIS 210 or HIS 230, and a grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 350  History of East Asia     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: East Asia and the Pacific from antiquity to the present. Topics may include religion, politics, economics, impact of European and American traders and missionaries, interactions with European empires, resistance to Westernization, and the emergence of contemporary China, Japan, and Pacific nations. Prerequisite(s): HIS 210 or HIS 230, and a grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 355  Study Abroad in History     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: An intensive three-week upper-level course in European history. A special fee is assessed for the course. This course is only taught in the summer. Deadline for application is March 1. This course may be taken more than once for credit as an elective, but only once to fulfill a requirement for an upper-level course for the major in either the B.A. or B.S. program in History. Prerequisite(s): HIS 200 or HIS 210 or HIS 230.

HIS 365  Methods of Teaching Social Studies     Credits: 5

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Principles and methods of teaching social studies in secondary school: objectives, problems, materials, and methods applied to the social studies curriculum. Methods include electronic portfolio, website technology, and traditional lesson plans/unit plans for each discipline involved. Those disciplines include economics, geography, government and political science, history, psychology, and sociology. Prerequisite(s): Departmental approval. Must be taken prior to Junior Teaching Experience.

HIS 370  History of Latin America     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: A survey course including pre-Columbian cultures, colonial period, independence movements, national developments, relations with the United States and Europe. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 or HIS 210, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 375  The American Revolution     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Imperial-colonial conflicts; declaring independence; political, social, economic, religious, and military considerations of war; the Confederation period; constitutional drafting and ratification. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140, and a grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or department approval.

HIS 380  The French Revolution and Napoleon     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Old Regime France; the origins of the French Revolution; political, social, religious, and cultural reforms; political shifts from monarchy to republic to dictatorship; popular and state-sanctioned violence; counter-revolution; the Terror; the Directory; the rise of Napoleon; the Napoleonic Wars; the impact of the French Revolution and Napoleon on the world. Prerequisite(s): HIS 210 and HIS 230, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 383  European Colonialism and Imperialism     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: This course examines the impact that European colonialism and imperialism had on Europe and the world between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries. We will begin with an examination of first contact between Europe and the Americas. We will then examine the evolution of European colonies during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The next stage of the course will examine the decline of the early modern colonial empires in the face of revolutionary movements and the rise of the new imperialism in the nineteenth century. The course will conclude with an examination of the decline of European states as imperial powers in the twentieth century and the legacy and long-term impact of European colonialism and imperialism. Prerequisite(s): HIS 210 and HIS 230 and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or department approval.

HIS 385  U.S. Constitutional History     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: An examination of the social, economic, political, and legal developments related to the United States Constitution; emphasis on constitutional foundings, balance of federal and state authorities, protection of individual liberties, and racial and gender equality. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140, HIS 150, and a grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 390  Heresy, Witchcraft, and Magic in Pre-Modern Europe     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Examines the evolution of religious beliefs and practices in pre-modern Europe. Particular attention is given to how definitions of heresy, witchcraft, and magic changed over time and methods used by Church and State to enforce religious conformity. Prerequisite(s): HIS 200 and HIS 210, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 400  Civil War and Reconstruction     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Westward expansion; U.S.-Mexican War; sectional crises and coming of the Civil War; slavery and abolition; political, social, and economic developments in the Civil War; African-American freedom; political, social, and economic effects of the nation's reconstruction. Prerequisite(s): HIS 140 and HIS 150, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 420  History of Africa     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: North Africa in the ancient world; Africa during the age of geographical discoveries; nineteenth-century European imperialism; the emergence of modern African states. Prerequisite(s): 6 credits from among HIS 200, HIS 210, or HIS 230, and grade of C or higher in HIS 290 or departmental approval.

HIS 450  Independent Research/Project     Credits: 1-5

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Investigation of a research problem, project, or topic on an individual conference basis. Prerequisite(s): Completion of major-minor declaration in history major or minor, minimum 2.5 GPA in major field, grade of C or higher in HIS 290, and departmental approval.

Latin (LTN)

LTN 100  Reading Latin Sources I     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Introduction to the fundamentals of Latin grammar and reading simple Latin texts. Because this course focuses on historical methodologies in reading Latin documents, it is not a standard language course, and so will not satisfy MWSU general studies, Category 4: Humanities, Group 4.

LTN 101  Reading Latin Sources II     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Introduction to the fundamentals of Latin grammar and reading simple Latin texts. Because this course focuses on historical methodologies in reading Latin documents, it is not a standard language course, and so will not satisfy MWSU general studies, Category 4: Humanities, Group 4.

LTN 200  Reading Latin Sources III     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: The focus is on reading actual Latin texts and reviewing Latin grammar. At first these will be modified so as to accommodate students just starting to read actual texts. Eventually, students will begin to read unmodified Latin sources. Each offering will focus on different types of texts, such as religious, historical, or literary texts. Because this course focuses on historical methodologies in reading Latin documents, it is not a standard language course, and so will not satisfy MWSU general studies, Category 4: Humanities, Group 4.

LTN 201  Reading Latin Sources IV     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Emphasis will be on unmodified Latin texts and review of Latin grammar. Each offering will focus on different types of texts, such as religious, historical, or literary texts. Because this course focuses on historical methodologies in reading Latin documents, it is not a standard language course, and so will not satisfy MWSU general studies, Category 4: Humanities, Group 4.

Philosophy (PHL)

PHL 210  Introduction to Philosophy     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Survey of the origins and development of philosophical thought focusing on texts selected from the classical, medieval, modern and contemporary periods.

CORE 42: MOTR PHIL 100; Introduction to Philosophy

PHL 219  Reasoning and Argumentation     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall.

Course Description: Introduction to the skills necessary to construct and evaluate deductive and inductive arguments for use in a variety of disciplines, professions and everyday life. Topics include identifying valid forms of arguments, formal and informal methods of evaluation and the use of these skills when reading and writing. Prerequisite(s): ENG 104.

CORE 42: MOTR PHIL 101; Introduction to Logic

PHL 220  Symbolic Logic     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Introduction to a symbolic language for representing the structure of valid arguments. Introduces formal rules for demonstrating the validity of arguments. Covers natural deduction for sentential and predicate calculus. Prerequisite(s): ACT math score of 20 or higher or the equivalent.

CORE 42: MOTR PHIL 101; Introduction to Logic

PHL 230  Ethics     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: An introduction to ethical theory focusing on the major traditions of Western philosophical ethics and their practical application to contemporary moral issues.

CORE 42: MOTR PHIL 102; Introduction to Ethics

PHL 231  Healthcare Ethics     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: An introduction to ethical theory focusing on the major traditions of Western philosophical ethics and their practical application to contemporary moral issues in healthcare.

CORE 42: MOTR PHL 102; Introduction to Ethics

PHL 232  Business Ethics     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: An introduction to ethical theory focusing on the major traditions of Western philosophical ethics and their practical application to contemporary moral issues in business.

CORE 42: MOTR PHIL 102P; Introduction to Ethics- Business and Professional

PHL 257  Theory and Criticism of Visual Culture     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall.

Course Description: A practical, experience-based multi-disciplinary introduction to contemporary and classic approaches to art theory and criticism. Same as ART 257. Prerequisite(s): ART 100 or ART 205 or CIN 100 or ENG 210 or ENG 220 or HUM 203 or HUM 204 or HUM 205 or MUS 101 or THR 113.

PHL 260  Philosophical Research     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: An introduction to the methods of philosophical research, including the analysis and interpretation of primary texts, the use of secondary sources, and formal models of oral and written presentation; the course will focus on the study of a canonical text or topic. May be repeated with departmental approval for a total of 6 credits if course content varies significantly. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy.

PHL 301  Ancient Philosophy     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Survey of ancient philosophy from the pre-Socratics to Hellenistic thought with particular emphasis placed upon philosophies of Plato and Aristotle. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

PHL 302  Medieval Philosophy     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Survey of the major figures and problems that developed within medieval philosophy with emphasis upon Augustine, Anselm, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scotus and William of Ockham. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

PHL 304  Modern Philosophy     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Survey of major figures and movements in modern philosophy selected from the early modern period through the end of the eighteenth century. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

PHL 305  Topics in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Philosophy     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Survey of a selected movement or trend in nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy such as German idealism, American pragmatism, phenomenology and existentialism, and the analytic tradition. May be repeated with departmental approval for a total of 6 credit hours if course content varies significantly. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

PHL 308  History and Philosophy of the Natural Sciences     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring.

Course Description: A study of the history of the natural sciences with an emphasis on the philosophical analysis of these events. Same as CHE 308 and BIO 308. Prerequisite(s): Completion of General Studies Mathematics and Natural Sciences requirements.

PHL 310  Political Theory     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall.

Course Description: Political theories of classical thinkers, Plato and Aristotle; of church fathers, Augustine and Aquinas; and of modern theorists, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Mill; Marxism and Fascism. Same as PSC 310. Prerequisite(s): PSC 101 or any previous course in philosophy or humanities.

PHL 312  Contemporary Political Philosophy     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Political theories since the mid-twentieth century to the present including movements such as libertarianism, neo-conservatism, neo-liberalism, communitarianism, feminism, and environmentalism. Same as PSC 312. Prerequisite(s): PSC 101 or any previous course in philosophy or humanities.

PHL 316  Philosophy of Law     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: This course will survey several of the central schools of thought in the philosophy of Anglo-American jurisprudence. To do this, we will consider five major questions: What is law? What, if any, connection is there between law and ethics? When should law be used to restrict the liberty of individuals? To what extent should democratic states permit civil disobedience? What justifies inflicting punishment on those who violate the law? Same as LAT 316. Prerequisite(s): Any previous philosophy course.

PHL 325  Ethics of Environmental and Natural Resource Policy     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: A study of alternative theories of environmental ethics, the implications of these theories for natural resource and wildlife policy, and their application to some contemporary natural resource and wildlife management issues. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

PHL 330  Topics in Ethical Theory     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Survey of major theoretical alternatives in western philosophical ethics with reference to contemporary trends in ethical theory. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

PHL 335  Aesthetics and the Arts     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Survey of modern views of aesthetic experience and the arts with reference to classical and contemporary views. Same as ART 335. Prerequisite(s): A grade of B or higher in HUM 203 or HUM 204 or HUM 205 or PHL 210; or ART 257 or PHL 257.

PHL 350  Philosophy of Religion     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Study of classical and contemporary philosophical inquiry into the nature of religion and questions about God and ultimate reality. Same as REL 350. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

PHL 353  Philosophy of Biology     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: An introduction to current issues in the philosophy of biology such as the nature of biological organization, classification, and living systems and some of the problems that have arisen in the attempt to understand these complex systems. Same as BIO 353. Prerequisite(s): BIO 101 or BIO 105 or BIO 106.

PHL 360  Selected Topics in Philosophy     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Specialized course work focusing on individual figures, movements, recent trends or topics in philosophy. May be repeated with departmental approval for a total of 6 credit hours if course content varies significantly. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

PHL 365  Selected Topics in Peace & Conflict Studies     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Specialized course work in interpersonal and/or international conflict studies. May be repeated as content varies for a maximum of 9 credits.

PHL 370  Selected Topics in Comparative Philosophy     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Specialized course work in non-Western philosophy. May be repeated as content varies for a maximum of 6 credit hours. Same as REL 370. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

PHL 435  Foundations of Professional Ethics     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: A study of ethical issues that arise in various professions. The course surveys ethical theories and their application to contemporary issues in professions as well as moral aspects of decision making. Each version of the course focuses on ethical issues in a different profession. These include but are not limited to ethics in leadership, healthcare, business, engineering, criminal justice and legal professions, and natural resource ethics. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy.

PHL 450  Independent Research/Project     Credits: 1-3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Investigation of a research problem, project, or topic on an individual conference basis. Consent of departmental chairperson is required. Students are normally expected to discuss proposed work with PHL faculty two semesters before registration is anticipated. May be repeated with departmental approval for a maximum of 6 credits.

PHL 535  Foundations of Professional Ethics     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: A study of ethical issues that arise in various professions. The course surveys ethical theories and their application to contemporary issues in professions as well as moral aspects of decision making. The course focuses on ethical issues in different professions. These include but are not limited to ethics in leadership, healthcare, business, engineering, criminal justice and legal professions, and natural resource ethics. Prerequisite(s): Enrollment in any graduate program.

Religion (REL)

REL 150  Religions of the World     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Summer.

Course Description: Survey of major and minor religions around the world with relevant historical and cultural elements.

REL 250  Religions of East Asia and Oceania     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Survey of major and minor religions with relevant historical and cultural elements, focusing primarily on religious traditions with origins in East Asia and Oceania.

CORE 42: MOTR RELG 100; World Religion

REL 251  Religions of the West     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Survey of major and minor religions with relevant historical and cultural elements, focusing primarily on religious traditions with origins in West Asia, Europe, and the Americas.

CORE 42: MOTR RELG 100; World Religion

REL 252  Religions of South Asia and Africa     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Survey of major and minor religions with relevant historical and cultural elements, focusing primarily on religious traditions with origins in South Asia and Africa.

CORE 42: MOTR RELG 100; World Religion

REL 260  Introduction to Biblical Studies     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Introduction to the method and content of Biblical scholarship, covering the Jewish (Hebrew) Bible and the Christian (Greek) New Testament, with some discussion of relevant apocryphal and non-canonical texts.

CORE 42: MOTR RELG 100; World Religion

REL 263  Religion of the Hebrew Bible     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion .

Course Description: Introduction to the major elements of the Hebrew Bible from the perspective of contemporary biblical scholarship.

CORE 42: MOTR RELG 101O; Religious Texts, New Testament, Old Testament

REL 265  Religion of the New Testament     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Introduction to major elements of the New Testament from the perspective of contemporary New Testament scholarship.

CORE 42: MOTR RELG 101N; Religious Texts, New Testament, Old Testament

REL 325  World of Islam: People, Cultures & Societies     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: An introduction to the fundamentals of Islam, and a survey of cultures, traditions, social life, and history of Islamic societies. The course provides an interpretation of current events in the world of Islam. Special topics of interest would include: the origin and history of Islam; religious life (belief and practices, and observance); Islamic cultures; Islamic arts, literature, and architecture; economic applications of Islam; Islamic laws and theology; marriage and Muslim families; women's rights and position in Muslim families and society; political Islam (Islamic groups: modern and militant Islamic movements, the question of leadership); and, Islam and the West. The course is, however, open to the type of interests that students show in the subject matter. Same as SOC 325.

REL 345  Religion & Society     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (even-numbered years).

Course Description: An examination of the nature of religion as a social phenomenon, surveying major themes in the sociology of religion, such as the history of attempts to define religion, empirically grounded in the diversity of world religious traditions. Prerequisite(s): SOC 110 or any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

REL 350  Philosophy of Religion     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Study of classical and contemporary philosophical inquiry into the nature of religion and questions about God and ultimate reality. Same as PHL 350. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

REL 360  Selected Topics in Religion     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Specialized course work in the study of religion, normally a comparative exploration of a theme considered across a variety of global religious traditions. May be repeated as content varies for a maximum of 6 credits.

REL 361  War, Peace, & Religion     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: A course in comparative religious ethics thematically exploring a variety of global religious traditions, both East and West, examining their respective scriptures, doctrines, histories, and contemporary examples through the lens of their various perspective on violence and nonviolence. Special emphasis will be given to the resources each has available for nonviolent responses to interpersonal and international conflict. Same as PAX 361.

REL 365  Selected Topics in Peace & Conflict Studies     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: Specialized course work in interpersonal and/or international conflict studies. May be repeated as content varies for a maximum of 9 credits.

REL 370  Selected Topics in Comparative Philosophy     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Specialized course work in non-Western philosophy. May be repeated as content varies for a maximum of 6 credit hours. Same as PHL 370. Prerequisite(s): Any previous course in philosophy, religion, or humanities.

REL 450  Independent Research/Project     Credits: 1-3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Investigation of a research problem, project, or topic on an individual conference basis. Consent of departmental chairperson is required. Students are normally expected to discuss proposed work with REL faculty two semesters before registration is anticipated. May be repeated with departmental approval for a maximum of 6 credits.

Humanities (HUM)

HUM 203  Humanities: Ancient and Medieval     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: The social and intellectual history of humanity as reflected by literature, art, music, drama and discourse from the classical period to the Renaissance.

CORE 42: MOTR WCIV 101; Western Civilization I

HUM 204  Humanities: Middle Ages to the French Revolution     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: The social and intellectual history of humanity as reflected by literature, art, music, drama and discourse from the Middle Ages to the French Revolution.

CORE 42: WCIV 102; Western Civilization II

HUM 205  Humanities: American Revolution to the Present     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: The social and intellectual history of humanity as reflected by literature, art, music, drama and discourse from the American Revolution to the present.

CORE 42: WCIV 102; Western Civilization II

HUM 314  Technology And Society     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Participatory course emphasizing a particular problem and/or issue related to technology and society. Class participants will investigate the semester's theme using currently available technologies. Same as BIO 314, ENG 314, PSY 314, PSC 314. Prerequisite(s): Completion of category one -- Basic Skills General Studies courses.

HUM 360  Selected Readings in the Humanities     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: Specialized course work in the humanities of western civilization; emphasizes analysis of humanistic works of leading authors. Course may be repeated for up credit with departmental approval. Prerequisite(s): HUM 203, HUM 204 or HUM 205, or departmental approval.

HUM 450  Independent Research/Project     Credits: 1-3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Investigation of a research problem, project, or topic on an individual conference basis. Consent of departmental chairperson is required. Students are normally expected to discuss proposed work with HUM faculty two semesters before registration is anticipated. May be repeated with departmental approval for a maximum of 6 credits.

Peace & Conflict Studies (PAX)

PAX 335  Interpersonal Conflict Resolution     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: In-depth examination of the mediation process. Students will learn methods to promote settlement in disputes. Same as LAT 335.

PAX 361  War, Peace, & Religion     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (even-numbered years).

Course Description: A course in comparative religious ethics thematically exploring a variety of global religious traditions, both East and West, examining their respective scriptures, doctrines, histories, and contemporary examples through the lens of their various perspective on violence and nonviolence. Special emphasis will be given to the resources each has available for nonviolent responses to interpersonal and international conflict. Same as REL 361.

PAX 365  Selected Topics in Peace and Conflict Studies     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Departmental Discretion.

Course Description: Specialized course work in interpersonal and/or international conflict studies. Typically offered in conjunction with LAT 365, PHL 365, PSC 365, or REL 365. May be repeated as content varies for a maximum of 9 credits.

PAX 374  Exploring War and Peace in the Modern World     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Fall (odd-numbered years).

Course Description: This class provides an interdisciplinary survey of the root causes of conflicts and methods by which societies can build peace. There is a specific emphasis on the multiple meanings of peace in society and the challenges embedded in contemporary, applied peace-making. Same as PSC 374.

PAX 426  Peace and Justice in Post-Conflict Societies     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: S (even-numbered years).

Course Description: This course addresses issues of building peace in war-torn societies by focusing on a range of political, military, economic, and social challenges and how they intersect with institutions of the state. Emphasis on four separate sectors around which institutionalizing peace are organized: security, justice and reconciliation, governance and participation, and social and economic issues. Special attention is given to connecting the theoretical literature on conflict transition to the applied challenges of post-war societies. Same as PSC 426. Prerequisite(s): PSC 101 and PSC 200.

PAX 430  Conflict Management     Credits: 3

Typically Offered: Spring.

Course Description: Examines non-litigation forms of resolving legal disputes. Emphasis will be placed on Negotiation, Mediation and Arbitration. Same as LAT 430.

PAX 450  Independent Research/Project     Credits: 1-3

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

Course Description: Investigation of a research problem, project, or topic on an individual conference basis. Students are normally expected to discuss proposed work with PACS faculty two semesters before registration is anticipated. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite(s): Approval of the Director of Peace & Conflict Studies.

PAX 490  Practicum/Internship     Credits: 1-6

Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.

Course Description: In coordination with the Director of Peace & Conflict Studies, students arrange an internship or practicum with a relevant government agency or employer. Internships must be arranged and approved by the department in the semester preceding the internship. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite(s): Approval of the Director of Peace & Conflict Studies